There are six classes of nutrients: Carbohydrates (CHO), proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water.
CHO, proteins, and fats are energy providing nutrients, while vitamins and minerals are needed for energy metabolism. Water is the most abundant nutrient in the body and is essential for the normal functioning of all the organs in the body.
are the primary source of energy for our daily activities. Ideally it should provide 55-60 % of daily kcal’s.
CHO provide energy to the body in the form of glucose (stored as glycogen).
The vast majority of the calories one should eat in the first half of the day, up through lunch, are carbohydrates.
Excess CHO is not converted into fat / weight gain.
are used by the body to form muscle, hair, nails, and skin, to provide energy, to repair injuries, to carry nutrients throughout the body, and to contract muscle.
Protein supply the body building material and make good the loss that occur due to wear and tear.
Proteins should supply 10-15% of your total daily kcals.
Excess kcals from proteins can be converted to fat and stored. High-protein intakes also increase fluid needs and may be dehydrating if fluid needs are not met
are an essential part of diet, regardless of their bad reputation. Fats provide a major form of stored energy, insulate the body and protect the organs, carry nutrients throughout the body, satisfy hunger, and add taste to foods.
It supplies per unit weight more than twice the energy furnished by either protein or carbohydrate.
Presence of fat is important for the absorption of fat soluble vitamins like Vitamin A and carotene present in the diet.
The three types of fats naturally present in foods are saturated, and mono- and polyunsaturated fats. A fourth type of fat, trans fat, is formed during food processing.
Saturated Fats :
are solid at room temperature and are found primarily in animal foods (red meats, lard, butter, poultry with skin, and whole milk dairy products); tropical oils such as palm, palm kernel and coconut are also high in saturated fat.
Animal fat like ghee and butter contain vitamin A and vitamin D. These vitamins are not present in vegetable oils. Vegetable oils on the other hand contain vitamin E which protects the oil from oxidation.
Monounsaturated Fats :
are liquid at room temperature and are found in olive oil, canola oil and peanuts.
Polyunsaturated Fats :
are liquid at room temperature and are found in fish, corn, wheat, nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.
Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats should each be less than or equal to 10% of your total daily kcals. Therefore, total fat intake should be less than or equal to 30% of your total daily kcal intake.
Trans Fats :
are created when foods are manufactured. Currently, food labels do not list the trans fat content of a food but if “hydrogenated oils” are listed under ingredients it indicates the presence of trans fats. The more processed foods you eat, the greater your trans fat intake. Trans fats may increase blood cholesterol.On average, people who eat high-fat diets have more body fat than people who eat high-CHO, low-fat diets. On the other hand, a fat-free diet is also very harmful since fat is an essential nutrient.
is made in the liver, is an essential part of body cells, serves as a building block for some hormones (e.g., testosterone and estrogen), and it is required to digest fats. Cholesterol is also consumed in the diet by eating animal products. High intakes of dietary cholesterol and saturated fats are associated with an increased risk for heart disease. The American Heart Association recommends that daily cholesterol intakes should not exceed 300 milligrams (mg.). Red meats and egg yolks are examples of cholesterol rich foods that should be consumed in moderation.
do not provide kcals but both facilitate release of energy from CHO, proteins, and fats. Vitamins are classified as fat or water soluble.
Fat Soluble Vitamins :
are absorbed with dietary fat and can be stored in the body. These include vitamins A, D, E and K.
Water Soluble Vitamins :
are not stored in the body and excess is excreted in the urine. These include the B and C vitamins.
are classified according to their concentrations and functions in the body.
form part of body structure components and acts as catalytic agent in many body reactions. Bones and skeleton are made up mainly of calcium, magnesium and phosphorous. Iron is a component of blood.
Copper plays an important role in iron absorption. It is also involved in cross linking the connective tissues.
Trace Minerals :
are less abundant than minerals; examples include: zinc, selenium, cobalt, fluroid etc..
Sodium and Potassium are important constituents of fluid present inside and outside of the cell. Proper concentration of these inside and outside of the cell is essential to maintain osmotic balance and keep cell sin proper shape.
Sodium is lost is urine and particularly in sweat as sodium chloride. Sodium present in the food is not adequate to meet the requirement hence it is taken in the form of salt as sodium chlorides. The daily intake of salt in India like hot countries may be as high as 20 gms. Under conditions of excessive sweating and for those who work in hot environment a still higher intake may be necessary.
Approximately 60% of total body weight is water. Thus, adequate amounts of water must be consumed daily to ensure the normal functioning of the body and to replenish lost fluids. Water is needed to help digest and absorb nutrients, excrete wastes, maintain blood circulation, and maintain body temperature.
Daily Diet Fundamentals :
Eat low glycemic index carbs with very little protein, throughout the day, this keeps the body energized throughout the day.
For breakfast eat plenty of berries and other sugary fruits, because we want that fast-burning energy.
At lunch, avoid sugar and protein and pick out only the carbohydrates with very little protein, still eat fruit or vegetables of any kind.
At night, we don’t need energy. we are exhausted, and we want a good night’s sleep hence need to throttle back the carbs. In dinner we should have high proteins diet, but avoid most fruits (especially white fruits like apples and pears) and most root vegetables, at night, which are high in carbohydrates. Water is a critical part of the body’s repair process, so also eat salads, leafy green vegetables, and other vegetables that are high in water content at night.